Healthy relationships lead to better lives

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Teddi Dineley Johnson

Unless you’re shipwrecked on a deserted island, you probably enjoy a handful of close relationships. From spouses to children to friends, parents, siblings and significant others, healthy relationships build self-esteem, improve mental and emotional health and help you live a fuller life.

“Relationships are — not surprisingly — enormously important for health, and there are lots of studies on the biological processes that account for the link between relationships and health,” says psychology professor Arthur Aron, PhD, director of the Interpersonal Relationships Laboratory at New York’s Stony Brook University.

The quality of our personal relationships also has an enormous impact on our physical health, as evidenced by a hefty number of research studies.

“We support each other in getting enough exercise, eating right, flossing — all the things that make for better health can be supported or undermined by close relationships,” Aron says.

In the movie “Cast Away,” Tom Hanks’ character — stranded on an uninhabited island — creates a face on a volleyball and talks to the ball, which he names “Wilson,” as if it were a person. Though fictional and funny, the gesture illustrates something very basic about us: Relationships are important — so important, in fact, that our brains are hardwired to form them.

“Evolution has set us up to be very good in relationships and to make them happen,” says Aron, who also teaches an undergraduate course on close relationships. “We have evolved to form relationships and to keep them together to raise children.”

That said, have you ever wondered why some of your relationships are more effective than others? Researchers have learned a lot in the last 30 years about what makes good relationships tick, and it boils down to just a few things. Unfortunately, most folks are only minimally aware of those elements, Aron says, and therefore aren’t doing everything they could be doing to improve their relationships.

 

Mind your mental health

Without question, the mental health of all parties is the most important element of a good relationship. If you suffer from depression, anxiety, insecurity or low self-esteem, seek help from a health professional right away, because it’s not just you, but also your relationship, that will suffer.

You can’t always control the stressors in your life, but for your relationships to be effective, try to keep stress to a minimum.

Also, be understanding when others are going through a tough time. Someone who loses her or his job, for example, might behave negatively for a little while. But things should get better eventually.

Keep the lines open

“We just don’t communicate!” is a common refrain in relationships — too common in fact, because after mental health, effective communication is the second most important ingredient in a healthy relationship.

Communication is important because conflicts are inevitable in relationships, and “most people are poorly prepared to deal with them well,” Aron says.

But there’s plenty of help out there. If you’re planning to wed, take advantage of the preparation courses offered through places of worship or community programs.

If you are already in a relationship, think about registering for a weekend seminar or marital enrichment course, often offered through churches, synagogues and community recreation departments.

And if you think the communication between you and your partner needs some extra help, consider couples counseling or marital therapy.

 

Build a bridge of support

Support from family and friends is an ingredient that repeatedly surfaces in good relationships. You might need someone to take the kids for the night, or help with carpooling. If you have a support system in place, or live near friends and family, don’t be afraid to ask them for a helping hand, a sympathetic ear or advice.

 “All relationships require effort and attention,” Aron says. “Sometimes that effort and attention is automatic, such as with an infant. Beyond what is automatic, for most relationships, we usually need to put attention and effort into them, and it pays off.”

 

Love Quiz: Do You Really Know Your Partner?

Worldwide leaders in research and couples therapy, Drs. John and Julie Gottman have found that one of the most important characteristics of successful relationships is the quality of the friendship between partners.

Do you really know your partner? Take our quiz below to find out.

https://www.gottman.com/how-well-do-you-know-your-partner/

 

 

 

 

 

Financial Wellness

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Five Rules to Improve Your Financial Health

By Jean Folger | Updated June 21, 2016

The term “personal finance” refers to how you manage your money and how you plan for your future. All of your financial decisions and activities have an effect on your financial health now and in the future. We are often guided by specific rules of thumb – such as “don’t buy a house that costs more than 2.5 years’ worth of income” or “you should always save at least 10% of your income towards retirement.” While many of these adages are time tested and truly helpful, it’s important to consider what we should be doing – in general – to help improve our financial habits and health. Here, we discuss five broad personal finance rules that can help get you on track to achieving specific financial goals.

  1. Do the Math – Net Worth and Personal Budgets

Money comes in, money goes out. For many people, this is about as deep as their understanding gets when it comes to personal finances. Rather than ignoring your finances and leaving them to chance, a bit of number crunching can help you evaluate your current financial health and determine how to reach your short- and long-term financial goals.

As a starting point, it is important to calculate your net worth – the difference between what you own and what you owe. To calculate your net worth, start by making a list of your assets (what you own) and your liabilities (what you owe). Then subtract the liabilities from the assets to arrive at your net-worth figure. Your net worth represents where you are financially at that moment, and it is normal for the figure to fluctuate over time. Calculating your net worth one time can be helpful, but the real value comes from making this calculation on a regular basis (at least yearly). Tracking your net worth over time allows you to evaluate your progress, highlight your successes and identify areas requiring improvement.

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Equally important is developing a personal budget or spending plan. Created on a monthly or annual basis, a personal budget is an important financial tool because it can help you:

  • Plan for expenses.
  • Reduce or eliminate expenses.
  • Save for future goals.
  • Spend wisely.
  • Plan for emergencies.
  • Prioritize spending and saving.

There are numerous approaches to creating a personal budget, but all involve making projections for income and expenses. The income and expense categories you include in your budget will depend on your situation and can change over time. Common income categories include:

  • alimony
  • bonuses
  • child support
  • disability benefits
  • interest and dividends
  • rents and royalties
  • retirement income
  • salaries/wages

General expense categories include:

  • childcare/eldercare
  • debt payments – car loan, student loan, credit card
  • education – tuition, daycare, books, supplies
  • entertainment and recreation – sports, hobbies, movies, DVDs
  • food – groceries, dining out
  • giving – birthdays, holidays, charitable contributions
  • housing – mortgage or rent, maintenance
  • insurance – health, home/renters, auto, life
  • medical/healthcare – doctors, dentist, prescription medications, other known expenses
  • personal – clothing, hair care, gym, professional dues
  • savings – retirement, education, emergency fund, specific goals (i.e. vacation)
  • special occasions – weddings, anniversaries, graduation
  • transportation – fuel, taxis, subway, tolls, parking
  • utilities – phone, electric, water, gas, cell, Internet

Once you’ve made the appropriate projections, subtract your expenses from your income. If you have money left over, you have a surplus and you can decide how to spend, save or invest the money. If your expenses exceed your income, however, you will have to adjust your budget by increasing your income (adding more hours at work or picking up a second job) or by reducing your expenses.

To really understand where you are financially, and to figure out how to get where you want to be, do the math: Calculate both your net worth and a personal budget on a regular basis. This may seem abundantly obvious to some, but people’s failure to lay out and stick to a detailed budget is the root cause of excessive spending and overwhelming debt.

  1. Recognize and Manage Lifestyle Inflation

Most individuals will spend more money if they have more money to spend. As people advance in their careers and earn higher salaries, there tends to be a corresponding increase in spending, a phenomenon known as lifestyle inflation. Even though you might be able to pay your bills, lifestyle inflation can be damaging in the long run because it limits your ability to build wealth: Every extra rand you spend now means less money later and during retirement (see How to Manage Lifestyle Inflation).

One of the main reasons people allow lifestyle inflation to sabotage their finances is their desire to keep up with the Joneses. It’s not uncommon for people to feel the need to match their friends’ and coworkers’ spending habits. If your peers drive expensive cars, vacation at exclusive resorts and dine at expensive restaurants, you might feel pressured to do the same. What is easy to overlook is that in many cases the Joneses are actually servicing a lot of debt – over a period of decades – to maintain their wealthy appearance. Despite their wealthy “glow” – the boat, the fancy cars, the expensive vacations, the private schools for the kids – the Joneses might be living paycheck to paycheck and not saving a dime for retirement.

As your professional and personal situation evolves over time, some increases in spending are natural. You might need to upgrade your wardrobe to dress appropriately for a new position, or, as your family grows, you might need a house with more bedrooms. And with more responsibilities at work, you might find that it makes sense to hire someone to mow the lawn or clean the house, freeing up time to spend with family and friends and improving your quality of life.

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  1. Recognize Needs vs. Wants – and Spend Mindfully

Unless you have an unlimited amount of money, it’s in your best interest to be mindful of the difference between needs and wants so you can make better spending choices. “Needs” are things you have to have in order to survive: food, shelter, healthcare, transportation, a reasonable amount of clothing (many people include savings as a need, whether that’s a set 10% of their income or whatever they can afford to set aside each month). Conversely, “wants” are things you would like to have, but that you don’t need for survival.

It can be challenging to accurately label expenses as either needs or wants, and for many, the line gets blurred between the two. When this happens, it can be easy to rationalize away an unnecessary or extravagant purchase by calling it a need. A car is a good example. You need a car to get to work and take the kids to school. You want the luxury edition SUV that costs twice as much as a more practical car (and costs you more in gas). You could try and call the SUV a “need” because you do, in fact, need a car, but it’s still a want. Any difference in price between a more economical vehicle and the luxury SUV is money that you didn’t have to spend.

Your needs should get top priority in your personal budget. Only after your needs have been met should you allocate any discretionary income toward wants. And again, if you do have money left over each week or each month after paying for the things you really need, you don’t have to spend it all.

  1. Start Saving Early

It’s often said that it’s never too late to start saving for retirement. That may be true (technically), but the sooner you start, the better off you’ll likely be during your retirement years. This is because of the power of compounding – what Albert Einstein called the “eighth wonder of the world.”

Compounding involves the reinvestment of earnings, and it is most successful over time: The longer earnings are reinvested, the greater the value of the investment, and the larger the earnings will (hypothetically) be.

  1. Build and Maintain an Emergency Fund

An emergency fund is just what the name implies: money that has been set aside for emergency purposes. The fund is intended to help you pay for things that wouldn’t normally be included in your personal budget: unexpected expenses such as car repairs or an emergency trip to the dentist. It can also help you pay your regular expenses if your income is interrupted; for example, if an illness or injury prevents you from working or if you lose your job.

Although the traditional guideline is to save three to six months’ worth of living expenses in an emergency fund, the unfortunate reality is that this amount would fall short of what many people would need to cover a big expense or weather a loss in income. In today’s uncertain economic environment, most people should aim for saving at least six months’ worth of living expenses – more if possible. Putting this as a regular expense item in your personal budget is the best way to ensure that you are saving for emergencies and not spending that money frivolously.

Keep in mind that establishing an emergency backup is an ongoing mission (see Building an Emergency Fund): Odds are, as soon as it is funded you will need it for something. Instead of being dejected about this, be glad that you were financially prepared and start the process of building the fund again.

The Bottom Line

Personal finance rules-of-thumb can be excellent tools for achieving financial success. But It’s important to consider the big picture and build habits that help you make better financial choices, leading to better financial health. Without good overall habits, it will be difficult to obey detailed adages like “never withdraw more than 4% a year to make sure your retirement lasts” or “save 20 times your gross income for a comfortable retirement.”

Bullying Life skill talk at Hoogland farm

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Bullying between children is an enormous problem.  During the December Holiday Annamart van der Merwe, from the Western Cape office presented PROCARE’s Anti-bullying Life skill Programme (called Beemy) at the Hoogland Farm nearby Ceres in the Boland.  PROCARE Western Cape is privileged to be the service provider to 9 Karsten Farms in the Western Cape since 2015. The focus of the Karsten farms is not  on the wellness of employees but also on their families.

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Domestic Violence

Imagine if, for 16 days, there was no rape, no child abuse. The 16 Days of Activism for No Violence Against Women and Children campaign challenges South Africans to declare a truce on violence against women and children – and, ultimately, to make it a permanent one.

For the 16th year, South Africa is taking part in the global 16 Days of Activism for No Violence Against Women and Children campaign, which runs from 25 November (International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women) through to International Human Rights Day on 10 December.

With the theme “Count me in: Together moving a non-violent South Africa forward”, the campaign will be officially launched by President Jacob Zuma in Reiger Park, Ekurhuleni, on 25 November.

While the campaign runs only for 16 days each year, its objectives are reinforced by a year-long programme and a national plan to combat abuse.

South Africa is still home to high levels of violence against its women and children, despite a world-renowned Constitution and a legislative overhaul that safeguards women’s and children’s rights.

The government, business, civil society organisations, faith-based organisations and the media are all participating in the drive to increase awareness of the negative impact of violence and abuse on women and children. Read more:

http://www.southafrica.info/services/rights/16days.htm#.WDwckI9OLnM

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5 Ways to Manage Your Child’s Anger

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Whether because of not getting a snack he wants or fighting with a playmate over a toy, even young children get angry at times. And while anger itself isn’t good or bad, the way a child deals with anger can be constructive or destructive. As a parent, it might be tempting to send a child to his room for acting out in anger or to yell at him to stop being mad. But it’s better for your child if you help him develop the ability to cope well with anger. Here are some strategies to use.

  1. Talk it out. Calmly ask your child to explain what has caused her to become so angry. Talking through the issue can help some children work through the anger and calm down. If your child doesn’t want to discuss it with you, she may feel comfortable “talking” to a pet, puppet, or imaginary friend.
  2. Get physical. Kids can let off some steam by stomping their feet, punching a pillow, or pulling, twisting, or pounding on clay. Dancing around or taking a walk may also help. Encouraging a child to do things he enjoys — drawing, walking the dog, reading — can also help refocus his thoughts away from anger.
  3. Give comfort and affection. Let your little one know that you genuinely care about his situation and feelings. Toddlers can be comforted by your physical presence as can older kids facing a frustrating situation. And never underestimate the power of a hug to make a child feel loved and accepted.
  4. Set a good example. Children mimic adults so the way you handle your own anger and frustration is sure to affect your child. Model positive coping skills — like doing something that calms you or getting away from a frustrating situation — and your child is likely to do the same.
  5. Praise good behavior. Let your child know that you notice when she deals with her anger in a positive way.

The information on this Web site is designed for educational purposes only. It is not intended to be a substitute for informed medical advice or care. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat any health problems or illnesses without consulting your pediatrician or family doctor. Please consult a doctor with any questions or concerns you might have regarding your or your child’s condition

Source: http://www.parents.com/toddlers-preschoolers/discipline/anger-management/5-ways-to-manage-your-childs-anger/angry-story-poster

The science of exam stress: Beating the study blues

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Stress might be useful for dodging sabre-toothed tigers, but it doesn’t help so much with exams

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The majority of us have, at one time or another, been in a situation where you sit down at the desk and open your exam paper, only to realise that somewhere between the door and your seat, all of the information that you’ve been revising for the past few months has leaked out of your ear. You start to panic because you’ve completely forgotten a year’s worth of work and all you can hear is the ticking of your watch as it counts down the minutes until the end of the exam.

This particular form of stress is known as exam anxiety and some people are more susceptible to it than than others.

Stress is a natural, healthy bodily response which humans have evolved in order to protect them in times of danger. When an individual is faced with a stressor, a hormone is released within the body which causes various physiological changes; the heart begins to pump faster in order to supply the body’s muscles with a larger supply of oxygen, blood pressure therefore increases and the body perspires more to prevent over-heating due to the body’s increased metabolic rate. Although this evolutionary advantage is excellent at preparing the body for a fight with a wild tiger, it’s not as magnificent when it comes to students and their exams.

Read more: 10 ways to beat exam stress

According to findings by social research psychologist Martyn Denscombe, teenagers suffer from exam stress for four reasons. The educational or occupational consequences associated with the outcome of the exam; their self-esteem with regards to the outcome of their grades (students are likely to have a higher self-esteem with higher grades); judgements from friends and parents in relation to to their performance; and fear of disappointing their teachers.

So what can you do?

Firstly, you need to remember that although it feels like the most important thing in the world, this test isn’t worth the physical strain that you’re putting on your body. When you’re feeling the effects of exam anxiety and your brain feels blank, take a drink of your water and breathe deeply and slowly. This will allow your body to rehydrate and to stop the effects of the stress response.

Many teachers, friends and family believe that they are further the students by saying “if you don’t get an A-grade you won’t get a job” but it can actually cause increased pressure for the individual. It could be an idea to sit down with your family members before-hand to discuss realistic expectations so that there isn’t too much pressure being put on the student.

Why do we become forgetful and how can we avoid it?

Excessive anxiety can make it almost impossible for the student to focus on their exam and it is often the case that they struggle to recall things that they have studied. This is because – due to that pesky evolutionary response again – the body releases large amounts of the stress hormone known as cortisol during times of stress. Studies have shown that cortisol impairs the speed of memory retrieval in humans.

Nutritional biochemist Shawn Talbott’s research shows that there is 50 per cent more cortisol in the blood stream if an individual has six hours’ sleep instead of the recommended eight hours. It is also important for you to maintain a nutrition-rich diet, drink plenty of water and eat three meals a day; this will keep the cortisol hormone at a natural level and allow you to concentrate fully on the task at hand.

Examination anxiety before the exam begins

Some people find that after suffering a highly stressful test once, their past experiences create schemas for how they expect future exams to be and therefore become more and more stressed in the lead up to their exams. This form of chronic stress causes all of the same physiological changes as the immediate stress response but over a longer period of time. This can cause high blood pressure, heart disease and seriously weaken the immune system.

Chronic stress is difficult to overcome as it tends to build up over a period of time. With this information in mind it is important to identify potential future stressors at the beginning of the educational year and to plan your revision timetable and making sure that you attend your lectures throughout the year in order to make it easier for yourself when it comes to the exam period. The typical student stressor is leaving their projects and work till last minute, always using the excuse that they work better with a tight deadline; we all know from experience however, that students are actually just too laid-back.

Source: http://www.independent.co.uk/student/student-life/the-science-of-exam-stress-beating-the-study-blues-9049100.html

Anti-Bullying

Anti Bullying poster Educators

Anti Bullying poster Educators

The way schools react is important

The most effective thing that a school can do to reduce bullying is to have a policy outlining how the issue is raised within the curriculum, and how incidents are dealt with after they have happened i.e. the policy must acknowledge the need for both pro-active and re-active strategies. But no school has the answer to every problem, and no single method can be used to deal with all bullying incidents.

The way in which adults react to bullying contributes to the ethos of the school and can help to make it more or less likely that bullying will happen in future. Ignoring the problem encourages it to flourish. A heavy-handed approach can drive it underground. However, a positive, open response will encourage young people to speak up about matters that concern them and will improve the learning environment by promoting more caring and responsible patterns of behaviour.

How should schools react?

This will depend upon:

  • The circumstances – always assess the true nature of an incident before applying any strategy. Group bullying or “mobbing” needs to be handled differently from problems created by an individual who persistently bullies others. Such a person’s bullying may be merely one manifestation of a plethora of problems.

The existing practices and resources of the school – for example, there is no

point trying to encourage a counselling approach if potential counsellors are not given the training, time and support needed to fulfil the task.

Which strategies are best?

Schools are getting better at dealing with bullying but it will be some time before a quick resolution of all incidents can be guaranteed. Sometimes all that is needed is a simple word or two from a teacher to make children realise that what they are doing is wrong. At the other extreme some bullying remains intractable. The development of new ideas continues and all it is possible to do at the moment is to list some of the strategies for which success has been claimed and to provide a few words of commentary on each.

  • Punishments such as suspension or expulsion can mark the seriousness with which an episode of bullying is viewed and can also help to provide a safer environment for victims. It also has to be recognised that some types of bullying are crimes. Schools are subject to the law of the land so the possibility of punishment in response to very serious incidents cannot be denied. However, the great majority of bullying goes unpunished so some new ways of helping the thousands of hidden victims of bullying are needed.
  • Assertive discipline – a method developed the United States which involves a rigid system of rewards and sanctions consistently applied by all teachers in a school. It is claimed that this method helps to motivate learning and to reduce the level of classroom indiscipline, but its effectiveness in coping with bullying is not clear.
  • Bully boxes – a simple method whereby youngsters can put their concerns on paper and post them in a “bully box”. What happens to these notes is the key to the success or failure of this technique. Can genuine comments be distinguished from frivolous or malicious ones?
  • Bully courts – the idea that young people should play a part in making school rules and in deciding what should happen to those who break them is not new. Some progressive schools introduced councils to do this over fifty years ago. More recently a few schools have tried to establish courts or councils solely to deal with cases of bullying. However, the principle that young people should sit in judgement on their peers, and punish wrongdoers remains controversial. What is clear is that adults must play an active and guiding role in such proceedings in order to protect the welfare of all the young people involved.
  • Counselling – a teacher or another adult may have the skills and time to offer support to young people involved in bullying. Both bullies and victims can benefit from this process. The main problems are that it is time consuming, the youngsters must take part voluntarily and there is a lack of trained counsellors in schools.
  • Mediation – some schools have introduced schemes where two parties to a relationship problem agree that a third person, who may be either an adult or another young person, helps to negotiate a solution. This seems to be helpful in many situations, especially where there is not too large an imbalance of power between the protagonists – but not in all cases of bullying. A bully may refuse to take part because he or she has no interest in ending the bullying. A victim may feel that a negotiated solution is not appropriate when it is the other person who is entirely in the wrong.
  • Peer counselling – a small number of secondary schools have used older teenagers as peer counsellors. Good training and continuing support is vital if these young volunteers are to be able to help victims who may be quite seriously distressed.
  • The ‘no blame’ approach – a step by step technique which allows early intervention because it does not require that anyone should be proved to be at fault. A group of young people, which includes bystanders as well as possible bullies, is made aware of a victim’s distress and is asked to suggest solutions. This approach is particularly useful in dealing with group bullying and name-calling, when it may be difficult to use more traditional remedies.
  • The ‘shared concern’ method – a Swedish technique which has much in common with the “No blame” approach, although it has not been widely used in Britain, perhaps because it is more elaborate and time consuming. Both of these methods have been criticised for failing to allocate blame but both aim to encourage bullies to accept responsibility for their actions as well as bringing the bullying to an end.
  • “Solution focused approaches” share much of the philosophy of the previous two strategies but can be applied to problems other than bullying. This is helpful because the task of finding out the facts of an incident and then of making a judgement about whether it should be called bullying or not is sometimes impossible. Relationship problems amongst a group of children can be very complicated indeed. They can also be very damaging to the personal development and education of some of the individuals involved. Being able to intervene without wasting too much time trying to untangle emotional knots has obvious attractions for busy teachers.
  • Reporting systems – it is most important that schools should have efficient ways of recording reports of serious bullying so that a check can be kept of patterns of behaviour. This can also help to ensure that incidents are not overlooked.
  • “Safe rooms” have been set up in some schools at break and lunch times as a refuge for bullied children. Although this may provide safety in the short term, it could have the effect of making the rest of the school seem even more hostile to the children who use it.
  • Telephone help lines – services such as ChildLine provide valuable support to children who are afraid to speak out about bullying. However, the fact that they exist is a signal that some schools are failing to provide conditions in which children are able to discuss their problems openly. One or two schools have set up their own internal help lines in an attempt to increase the opportunities for worried children to seek help.

 

Drug abuse is damaging South Africa’s youth

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The drug problem in South Africa is extremely serious, with drug usage reported as being at twice the world norm. Over 15% of our population has a drug problem.

In light of SANCA’s drug awareness week from 24 to 28 June and Youth Month, now is the perfect time to place drug abuse in the spotlight. According to Patrizia Scalone from Metapsychetc, substance abuse can simply be defined as a pattern of harmful use of any substance for mood-altering purposes that gives rise to both physical and psychological dependence. “Dependence results in mental, emotional, biological or physical, social and economic instability. The effects of substance abuse on an individual form the basis of its increasing effects on society. This is a major danger of substance abuse,” she explains.

Studies show that people who start drinking before the age of 15 are four times more likely to become alcoholics. School kids who use alcohol or drugs are three times more likely to get involved in violent crimes. Frighteningly the average age of drug dependency in South Africa is 12 years old and dropping. “We need to warn our youth about drug use and encourage them to stand strong against peer and adult pressure,”

Along with peer pressure, there are several other major factors that can influence the abuse of drugs among youths namely weak parental control, child abuse, imitation, emotional stress, truancy among students, the availability of the drugs and the ineffectiveness of laws on drug trafficking.

No matter how much or often substances are consumed, if drug use is causing problems in the person’s life – at work, school, home or relationships – there is likely a substance abuse or addiction problem. “In many cases, there is a fine line between regular use, substance abuse and addiction. Very few addicts are able to recognise when they have crossed that line,” says Scalone. “The good news is, however, that with the right treatment and support, the disruptive effects of drug use can be counteracted and control can be regained. The first obstacle is to recognise and admit a problem, or listen to loved ones who are often better able to see the negative effects of drug use.” Young people who abuse substances often experience an array of problems including academic difficulties, health-related problems, mental problems like depression, and poor peer relationships. “Family relationships are also affected. Substance abuse by youths often results in family crises and can jeopardise many aspects of family life.”

The social and economic costs related to youth substance abuse are high. They result from the financial losses and distress suffered by alcohol and drug related crime victims, increased burdens for the support of young adults who are not able to become self supporting, and greater demands for medical and other treatment services for these youths.

“There is an undeniable link between substance abuse and delinquency. It cannot be claimed that substance abuse causes delinquent behaviour or delinquency causes alcohol and other drug use. However, the two behaviours are strongly correlated and often bring about school and family problems, involvement with negative peer groups, lack of neighbourhood social control and physical or sexual abuse,” adds Scalone.

Substance abuse is associated with both violent and income generating crimes by youths. Gangs, trafficking, prostitution and growing numbers of youth homicides are among the social and criminal justice problems often linked to adolescent substance abuse.

Peter Jordan  (Fedhealth)

Please watch this short video clip consisting of the dangers and consequences of alcohol abuse in teens:

http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/alcohol/short-term-long-term-effects.html

 

The PROCARE team.